NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM
In 1978, the Transportation Research Board (TRB) published NCHRP Report 187: Quick-Response Urban Travel Estimation Techniques and Transferable Parameters (Sosslau et al., 1978). This report described default parameters, factors, and manual techniques for doing planning analysis. The report and its default data were used widely by the transportation planning profession for almost 20 years. In 1998, drawing on several newer data sources, including the 1990 Census and Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, an update to NCHRP Report 187 was published in the form of NCHRP Report 365: Travel Estimation Techniques for Urban Planning (Martin and McGuckin, 1998).
Since NCHRP Report 365 was published, significant changes have occurred affecting the complexity, scope, and context of transportation planning. Transportation planning tools have evolved and proliferated, enabling improved and more flexible analyses to support decisions. The demands on transportation planning have expanded into special populations and broader issues (e.g., safety, congestion, pricing, air quality, environment, climate change, and freight). In addition, the default data and parameters in NCHRP Report 365 need to be updated to reflect the planning requirements of today and the next 10 years.
The objective of this report is to revise and update NCHRP Report 365 to reflect current travel characteristics and to provide guidance on travel demand forecasting procedures and their application for solving common transportation problems. It is written for “modeling practitioners,” who are the public agency and private-sector planners with responsibility for developing, overseeing the development of, evaluating, validating, and implementing travel demand models. This updated report includes the optional use of default parameters and appropriate references to other more sophisticated techniques. The report is intended to allow practitioners to use travel demand forecasting methods to address the full range of transportation planning issues (e.g., environmental, air quality, freight, multimodal, and other critical concerns).
One of the features of this report is the provision of transferable parameters for use when locally specific data are not available for use in model estimation. The parameters presented in this report are also useful to practitioners who are modeling urban areas that have local data but wish to check the reasonableness of model parameters estimated from such data. Additionally, key travel measures, such as average travel times by trip purpose, are provided for use in checking model results. Both the transferable parameters and the travel measures come from two main sources: the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and a database of model documentation for 69 metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) assembled for the development of this report. There are two primary ways in which planners can make use of this information:
1. Using transferable parameters in the development of travel model components when local data suitable for model development are insufficient or unavailable; and
2. Checking the reasonableness of model outputs.
This report is written at a time of exciting change in the field of travel demand forecasting. The four-step modeling process that has been the paradigm for decades is no longer the only approach used in urban area modeling. Tour- and activity-based models have been and are being developed in several urban areas, including a sizable percentage of the largest areas in the United States. This change has the potential to significantly improve the accuracy and analytical capability of travel demand models.
About TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP)
“The National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) conducts research in problem areas that affect highway planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance nationwide. Information about NCHRP and other TRB activities is available in the TRB E-Newsletter. The NCHRP is managed by the Cooperative Research Programs of the Transportation Research Board.”