Support for InfrastructureUSA.org
has been provided by these organizations and individuals:

John Hennessy III,
P.E.

Pedestrian Roadway Crossing Behavior

Posted by InfraUSA on Friday, March 14th, 2014

FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION

Executive Summary

Human Factors Assessment of Pedestrian Roadway Crossing BehaviorPedestrian–vehicle crashes are both common and deadly. In 2010, 13 percent of all fatal crashes  involved pedestrians. Of these, 68.1 percent occurred outside intersections. As a result of the  large proportion of pedestrian fatalities that occur at non-intersection locations, it is important to  investigate the causal factors of these collisions. Despite the large proportion of crashes, little  research has investigated the reasons pedestrians cross roadways at unmarked locations.

As a result, the present study sought to better understand the environmental influences on both  where and when pedestrians elect to cross the road. The circumstances surrounding when and  where more than 70,000 crossings took place were recorded and analyzed. A model to predict  crossing behaviors was created. These data have the potential to guide roadway design. Furthermore, this approach may aid in the selection and location of pedestrian crossing  interventions (e.g., new pedestrian activation crossing beacons), ultimately increasing pedestrian  safety in shared use environments.

Pedestrian roadway crossings were coded at 20 different locations in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Each location was one block in length and was flanked by two marked  crosswalks at intersections. Crossings were recorded within one marked, light-controlled  crosswalk and the roadway between it and the next marked crossing (but not within the far  crossing). Pedestrian crossings were coded for several different factors:

A. Location. Within the marked crosswalk, or not.

B. Traffic status. Walk or don’t walk sign illuminated.

C. Yielding. Pedestrians yielding to vehicles or vehicles yielding to pedestrians in the  roadway.

D. Evasive Actions. Any evasive movement made by a vehicle or pedestrian to avoid  collision (e.g., running or abrupt braking).

Stable components of each location were also recorded:

1. Distance between the marked crosswalks.

2. Average annual daily traffic volume (AADT).

3. Street directionality (one- or two-way).

4. Physical barriers in or along the roadway that might prevent pedestrians from easily  crossing between the roadway and sidewalk.

5. Presence and location of bus stops.

6. Number of potential pedestrian trip originators/destinations.

7. Availability of street parking.

8. Presence of a center turn lane.

9. Presence of a right turn only turning lane

10. Length of the walk light phase.

11. Length of the don’t walk light phase.

12. Width of the roadway/pedestrian crossing.

13. Presence and type of median (e.g., raised concrete or painted asphalt).

14. Presence of a T-intersection between the two marked crosswalks.

15. Traffic control device of the second crosswalk (i.e., traffic signal, stop sign, or none).

16. Pace at which pedestrians are required to travel to complete a crossing entirely during the walk light phase.

 Figure 1. Graph. Total number of pedestrian fatalities, number of urban intersection/ intersection-related fatalities, and number of urban non-intersection fatalities in daytime environments by year.
Download full version (PDF): Human Factors Assessment of Pedestrian Roadway Crossing Behavior

About the Federal Highway Administration
www.fhwa.dot.gov
“The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is an agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation that supports State and local governments in the design, construction, and maintenance of the Nation’s highway system (Federal Aid Highway Program) and various federally and tribal owned lands (Federal Lands Highway Program). Through financial and technical assistance to State and local governments, the Federal Highway Administration is responsible for ensuring that America’s roads and highways continue to be among the safest and most technologically sound in the world.”

Tags: , , ,

Comment

*

Receive Infra Update, our email newsletter.

Follow InfraUSA on Twitter Facebook YouTube Flickr
Show us your infra! Show us your infra!

Video, stills and tales. Share images of the Infra in your community that demands attention. Post your ideas about national Infra issues. Go ahead. Show Us Your Infra!  Upload and instantly share your message.

Polls Polls

Is the administration moving fast enough on Infra issues? Are Americans prepared to pay more taxes for repairs? Should job creation be the guiding determination? Vote now!

Views

What do the experts think? This is where the nation's public policy organizations, trade associations and think tanks weigh in with analysis on Infra issues. Tell them what you think.  Ask questions.  Share a different view.

Blog

The Infra Blog offers cutting edge perspective on a broad spectrum of Infra topics. Frequent updates and provocative posts highlight hot button topics -- essential ingredients of a national Infra dialogue.